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Transfer of data in ICT systems

Computer Network:
Linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data, communicating, software and peripherals.

LAN: Local Area Network, Computers and peripherals in close proximity typically one building or site that has been connected together.

WAN: Wide Area Network, A set of links that connects geographically remote computers and local area networks.

MAN: Metropolitan Area Network, a city wide network linked by cables or microwaves. e.g. a city Wi-Fi.

Internet the international network of interconnected computers, sometimes called a network of networks. It is the physical infrastructure i.e. cables and servers.

World Wide Web the collection of web pages and multimedia resources available on the internet.

Intranet is a service that uses internet technologies (protocols) to distribute information securely and privately within a single organisation over its internal network.

Extranet is an extension of a company’s private intranet where individuals can have authorised access to it by logging on securely over the internet.

Hub: small, simple and cheap device to connect network devices communication by broadcasting data and therefore less secure. Not used much nowadays.

Switch: More complex and expensive than hub and can direct packets. Connects at the data link layer.

Router: Most expensive and complex of the three, as it is programmable. It can set filters like keyword, blacklist and whitelist. Connects networks at the network protocol layer.

Transfer Media: Ethernet, Fiber Optic, Wi-fi, Mobile Network & Satellite.

Protocol a description of a set of procedures / or known rules to be followed when communicating.


De facto
One where no formal agreement has taken place but is most commonly used.
JPEG de facto photo.      Windows de facto OS.                   Flash for online Video.

De jure
Legally binding industry standard.
Wi-Fi developed by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

PDF  by ISO – Industry Standards Organisation.